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Relation between retinal vascular abnormalities and working memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Authors: Appaji A, Berendschot TTJM, Chako DM, Hiremath CV, Jacob A, Kesavan M, Nagendra B, Padmanabha A, Rao NP, Rao SV, Varambally S, Venkatasubramanian G, Webers CAB

Journal: Asian journal of psychiatry

DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.101942

Year Published: 2020

Emerging evidence indicates abnormal retinal micro-vasculature in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and its relation to cognitive functions. However, the association of these abnormalities with the cognitive deficits in these disorders has not been examined till date. Hence, we explored this aspect in patients with SCZ, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV). We examined 34 […]

Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on cognition and symptoms in Chinese patients with schizophrenia✰.

Authors: Davis JM, Faull R, Jiang J, Jin H, Li C, Md WL, Smith RC, Szabo V, Wang J, Wang Y

Journal: Psychiatry Research

DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112617

Year Published: 2019

There is preliminary evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation(tDCS) may improve symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenia, but the generalizability of these results needs further investigation. We present a study of the effects of active vs. sham tDCS on cognition and symptoms in a sample of 45 Chinese patients with schizophrenia who showed significant cognitive […]

Cognitive capacity similarly predicts insight into symptoms in first- and multiple-episode psychosis.

Authors: Brodeur MB, Joober R, Kline RB, Lepage M, Malla A, Sauvé G, Shah JL

Journal: Schizophrenia Research

DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.11.013

Year Published: 2019

BACKGROUND: Lack of insight is a frequent characteristic of psychotic disorders, both in patients who recently experienced a first episode of psychosis (FEP) and those who experience recurrent multiple episodes (MEP). Insight is a multifaceted construct: its clinical form notably includes the unawareness of being ill, of symptoms, and of the need for treatment. Cognitive […]

Exercise effects on cognitive functioning in young adults with first-episode psychosis: FitForLife.

Authors: Ekblom Ö, Firth J, Forsell Y, Hallgren M, Schembri A, Skott M

Journal: Psychological Medicine

DOI: 10.1017/S0033291718001022

Year Published: 2019

BACKGROUND: Exercise has mood-enhancing effects and can improve cognitive functioning, but the effects in first-episode psychosis (FEP) remain understudied. We examined the feasibility and cognitive effects of exercise in FEP. METHOD: Multi-center, open-label intervention study. Ninety-one outpatients with FEP (mean age = 30 years, 65% male) received usual care plus a 12-week supervised circuit-training program, […]

Comparing cognitive clusters across first- and multiple-episode of psychosis.

Authors: Brodeur MB, Joober R, Lepage M, Malla A, Sauvé G

Journal: Psychiatry Research

DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.08.119

Year Published: 2018

Cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders (PD) present heterogeneously across patients. Between 2 and 5 clusters have been identified in previous studies with first-episode (FEP) and multiple-episodes of psychosis (MEP) patients suggesting different profiles of impairment. Past findings suggest there are differences between FEP and MEP patients regarding severity and number of affected cognitive domains. Heterogeneity […]

Similar psychotic and cognitive profile between ketamine dependence with persistent psychosis and schizophrenia.

Authors: Chen CH, Chen CK, Cheng WJ, Huang MC, Krystal JH, Pietrzak RH, Xu K

Journal: Schizophrenia Research

DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.02.049

Year Published: 2018

BACKGROUND: Ketamine has been used to probe the biology of psychosis and cognitive dysfunction in humans. High levels of ketamine abuse are associated with persisting psychosis (KPP) in a minority of users. However, relatively little is known about cognitive function among KPP patients and whether the cognitive impairments associated with KPP resemble those of schizophrenia […]

Stimulating cognition in schizophrenia: A controlled pilot study of the effects of prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation upon memory and learning.

Authors: Collier T, Dolan H, Hodsoll J, Joyce D, Orlov ND, Patel S, Rodzinka-Pasko J, Rothwell J, Shergill SS, Tracy DK

Journal: Brain Stimulation

DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.12.013

Year Published: 2017

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is characterized by prominent cognitive deficits, impacting on memory and learning; these are strongly associated with the prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To combine two interventions, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the prefrontal cortex and cognitive training, to examine change in cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A double blind, sham-controlled pilot study […]

Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

Authors: Benoit A, Bherer L, Harvey PO, Lepage M

Journal: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment

DOI: 10.1155/2016/6371856

Year Published: 2016

Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after […]

A proof-of-concept, randomized controlled trial of DAR-0100A, a dopamine-1 receptor agonist, for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia.

Authors: Abi-Dargham A, Carter CS, Cho RY, Girgis RR, Glass A, Kegeles LS, Lieberman JA, Slifstein M, Thompson JL, Van Snellenberg JX, Wall M

Journal: Journal of Psychopharmacology

Year Published: 2016

BACKGROUND: Evidence from preclinical and human studies indicates the presence of reduced dopamine-1 receptor (D1R) signaling in the cortex, where D1Rs predominate, in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), which may contribute to their cognitive deficits. Furthermore, studies in nonhuman primates (NHP) have suggested that intermittent administration of low doses of D1R agonists produce long-lasting reversals in […]

Phase 2 Trial of an Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist (TC-5619) in Negative and Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia.

Authors: Beaver JS, Dunbar GC, Dvergsten C, Fleischhacker WW, Hosford DA, Jett JE, Kane J, Keefe RS, Marder SR, Segreti AC, Toler SM, Walling D

Journal: Schizophrenia Bulletin

Year Published: 2015

OBJECTIVES: This trial was conducted to test the effects of an alpha7 nicotinic receptor full agonist, TC-5619, on negative and cognitive symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. METHODS: In 64 sites in the United States, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Romania, and Serbia, 477 outpatients (18-65 years; male 62%; 55% tobacco users) with schizophrenia, treated with a new-generation […]

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Relation between retinal vascular abnormalities and working memory impairment in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Authors: Appaji A, Berendschot TTJM, Chako DM, Hiremath CV, Jacob A, Kesavan M, Nagendra B, Padmanabha A, Rao NP, Rao SV, Varambally S, Venkatasubramanian G, Webers CAB

Journal: Asian journal of psychiatry

DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.101942

Year Published: 2020

Emerging evidence indicates abnormal retinal micro-vasculature in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and its relation to cognitive functions. However, the association of these abnormalities with the cognitive deficits in these disorders has not been examined till date. Hence, we explored this aspect in patients with SCZ, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV). We examined 34 […]

Decreased working memory capacity among individuals with a mood disorder who have increased metabolic burden.

Authors: Babu P, Easter RE, Lamping E, Langenecker SA, Marshall DF, McInnis MG, Peterman JS, Ryan KA

Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.01.073

Year Published: 2020

BACKGROUND: Individuals with mood disorders experience a higher rate of obesity than the general population, putting them at risk for poorer outcomes. The relationship between obesity and a core feature of the mood disorders, neurocognition, is less understood. We examined the interaction of obesity as indexed by body mass index (BMI) and working memory performance […]

Computerised cognitive training to improve cognition including delirium following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: protocol for a blinded randomised controlled trial.

Authors: Bourke A, Davis DHJ, Greaves D, Keage HAD, Lampit A, Psaltis PJ, Smith AE, Valenzuela MJ, Worthington MG

Journal: BMJ Open

DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034551

Year Published: 2020

INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is known to improve vascular function and cardiac-related mortality rates; however, it is associated with high rates of postoperative cognitive decline and delirium. Previous attempts to prevent post-CABG cognitive decline using pharmacological and surgical approaches have been largely unsuccessful. Cognitive prehabilitation and rehabilitation are a viable yet untested […]

Longitudinal Comparison of in Clinic and at Home Administration of the Cogstate Brief Battery and Demonstrated Practice Effects in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging.

Authors: Albertson SM, Alden EC, Knopman DS, Kremers WK, Lundt ES, Machulda MM, Mielke MM, Petersen RC, Stricker NH

Journal: The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease

DOI: 10.14283/jpad.2019.35

Year Published: 2020

BACKGROUND: The Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) is a computerized cognitive assessment that can be completed in clinic or at home. Design/Objective: This retrospective study investigated whether practice effects / performance trajectories of the CBB differ by location of administration. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants included 1439 cognitively unimpaired individuals age 50-75 at baseline participating in the Mayo Clinic […]

A fair comparison of tree-based and parametric methods in multiple imputation by chained equations.

Authors: Naylor MG, Slade E

Journal: Statistics in medicine

DOI: 10.1002/sim.8468

Year Published: 2020

Multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE) has emerged as a leading strategy for imputing missing epidemiological data due to its ease of implementation and ability to maintain unbiased effect estimates and valid inference. Within the MICE algorithm, imputation can be performed using a variety of parametric or nonparametric methods. Literature has suggested that nonparametric tree-based […]

Use of an experimental language acquisition paradigm for standardized neuropsychological assessment of learning: A pilot study in young and older adults.

Authors: Baker JE, Bruns L Jr, Hassenstab J, Lim YY, Maruff P, Masters CL

Journal: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

DOI: 10.1080/13803395.2019.1665626

Year Published: 2020

Introduction: Despite the numerous episodic memory tasks used in neuropsychological assessment, relatively few learning tasks are available, with methods lacking the complexity and sophistication to capture very subtle changes in information acquisition. Method: We adapted a previously validated associative learning task for use within an online framework, utilizing real-world stimuli, in which learning of audio-visual […]

Hippocampal segmentation for brains with extensive atrophy using three-dimensional convolutional neural networks.

Authors: Adamo S, Akhavein H, Black SE, Gao F, Goubran M, Holmes M, MacIntosh B, Martel A, Masellis M, Nestor S, Ntiri EE, Ozzoude M, Ramirez J, Scott C, Swardfager W, Swartz R

Journal: Human brain mapping

DOI: 10.1002/hbm.24811

Year Published: 2020

Hippocampal volumetry is a critical biomarker of aging and dementia, and it is widely used as a predictor of cognitive performance; however, automated hippocampal segmentation methods are limited because the algorithms are (a) not publicly available, (b) subject to error with significant brain atrophy, cerebrovascular disease and lesions, and/or (c) computationally expensive or require parameter […]

Identification of Pre-Clinical Alzheimer’s Disease in a Population of Elderly Cognitively Normal Participants.

Authors: Doecke JD, Maruff P, Mengersen K, Rousseau J, van Havre Z, Villemagne VL, White N

Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-191095

Year Published: 2020

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has a long pathological process, with an approximate lead-time of 20 years. During the early stages of the disease process, little evidence of the building pathology is identifiable without cerebrospinal fluid and/or imaging analyses. Clinical manifestations of AD do not present until irreversible pathological changes have occurred. Given an opportunity to provide […]

The Effect of Hearing Aid Use on Cognition in Older Adults: Can We Delay Decline or Even Improve Cognitive Function?

Authors: Busby P, Harris D, Launer S, Lemke U, Maruff P, Sarant J, Schembri A

Journal: Journal of clinical medicine

DOI: 10.3390/jcm9010254

Year Published: 2020

Hearing loss is a modifiable risk factor for dementia in older adults. Whether hearing aid use can delay the onset of cognitive decline is unknown. Participants in this study (aged 62-82 years) were assessed before and 18 months after hearing aid fitting on hearing, cognitive function, speech perception, quality of life, physical activity, loneliness, isolation, […]

Associations of Apolipoprotein E ε4 Genotype and Ball Heading With Verbal Memory in Amateur Soccer Players.

Authors: Davies P, Freudenberg-Hua Y, Hu S, Hunter LE, Kim M, Lipton ML, Lipton RB, Srinivasan P, Stewart WF

Journal: JAMA Neurology

DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.4828

Year Published: 2020

Importance: Emerging evidence suggests that long-term exposure to ball heading in soccer, the most popular sport in the world, confers risk for adverse cognitive outcomes. However, the extent to which the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele, a common risk factor for neurodegeneration, and ball heading are associated with cognition in soccer players remains unknown. […]

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Rates of age- and amyloid β-associated cortical atrophy in older adults with superior memory performance.

Authors: Ames D, Dang C, Doecke JD, Fripp J, Harrington KD, Hickey M, Laws SM, Lim YY, Maruff P, Masters CL, Rainey-Smith S, Rowe CC, Salvado O, Snyder PJ, Sohrabi HR, Villemagne VL, Weinborn M, Xia Y, Yassi N

Journal: Alzheimer's & dementia : diagnosis assessment & disease monitoring

DOI: 10.1016/j.dadm.2019.05.005

Year Published: 2019

Introduction: Superior cognitive performance in older adults may reflect underlying resistance to age-associated neurodegeneration. While elevated amyloid β (Aβ) deposition (Aβ+) has been associated with increased cortical atrophy, it remains unknown whether “SuperAgers” may be protected from Aβ-associated neurodegeneration. Methods: Neuropsychologically defined SuperAgers (n = 172) and cognitively normal for age (n = 172) older […]

SuperAging: Current findings yield future challenges-A response to Rogalski and Goldberg.

Authors: Dang C, Maruff P

Journal: Alzheimer's & dementia : diagnosis assessment & disease monitoring

DOI: 10.1016/j.dadm.2019.05.004

Year Published: 2019

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Influence of Comorbidity of Cerebrovascular Disease and Amyloid-β on Alzheimer’s Disease.

Authors: Ames D, Chen C, Desmond PM, Fowler C, Hilal S, Kuijf H, Lim YY, Martins R, Maruff P, Masters CL, Rowe C, Salvado O, Villemagne V, Watson R, Xia Y, Yassi N, Yates P

Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-191028

Year Published: 2019

BACKGROUND: Quantifying the contribution of cerebrovascular disease to the clinical and pathological profile of Alzheimer’s disease is challenging. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the influence of cerebrovascular disease, amyloid-β (Aβ), and their comorbidity on cognitive decline, hippocampal atrophy, and Aβ deposition, by evaluating data from the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle Study of Ageing. METHODS: […]

Identification of Pre-Clinical Alzheimer’s Disease in a Population of Elderly Cognitively Normal Participants.

Authors: Doecke JD, Maruff P, Mengersen K, Rousseau J, van Havre Z, Villemagne V, White N

Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-191095

Year Published: 2019

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has a long pathological process, with an approximate lead-time of 20 years. During the early stages of the disease process, little evidence of the building pathology is identifiable without cerebrospinal fluid and/or imaging analyses. Clinical manifestations of AD do not present until irreversible pathological changes have occurred. Given an opportunity to provide […]

C-reactive protein and response to lurasidone treatment in children and adolescents with bipolar I depression: Results from a placebo-controlled trial.

Authors: Loebel A, Pikalov A, Raison CL, Siu C, Tocco M

Journal: Brain behavior and immunity

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.12.010

Year Published: 2019

This study sought to investigate associations between levels of high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP) prior to treatment and change in depressive symptoms and cognition in a short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of lurasidone in children and adolescents with bipolar I depression. Patients 10-17 years of age with a DSM-5 diagnosis of bipolar I depression were randomized to […]

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