Neuropsychological benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training in Ugandan children surviving severe malaria: A randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive rehabilitation training (CCRT) may be beneficial for alleviating persisting neurocognitive deficits in Ugandan severe malaria survivors. We completed a randomized controlled trial of CCRT for both severe malaria and non-malaria cohorts of children. METHODS: 150 school-age severe malaria and 150 non-malaria children were randomized to three treatment arms: 24 sessions of Captain’s […]
Computerized Cognitive Testing for Use in Clinical Trials: A Comparison of the NIH Toolbox and Cogstate C3 Batteries.
BACKGROUND As prevention trials for Alzheimer’s disease move into asymptomatic populations, identifying older individuals who manifest the earliest cognitive signs of Alzheimer’s disease is critical. Computerized cognitive testing has the potential to replace current gold standard paper and pencil measures and may be a more efficient means of assessing cognition. However, more empirical evidence about […]
Objectives: The current study examines prevalence of cognitive impairment in four mood disorder samples, using four definitions of impairment. The impact of premorbid IQ on prevalence was examined, and the influence of treatment response. Methods: Samples were: (i) 58 inpatients in a current severe depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar), (ii) 69 unmedicated outpatients in a […]
OBJECTIVES: Although HIV+ individuals may be at increased risk of alcohol-related cognitive impairment, the relations between drinking level and cognitive performance in these individuals are not well understood. We examined whether higher levels of recent drinking in HIV+ individuals were associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in executive functioning (EF) and memory. METHODS: We administered […]
Determining optimal impairment rating methodology for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder screening procedure.
INTRODUCTION: The current study sought to determine the optimal impairment rating definition for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) screening procedure as compared to standard neuropsychological testing. METHOD: A total of 55 HIV-infected (HIV+; 19% AIDS; 87% on combination antiretroviral therapy, cART; 80% plasma undetectable) and 22 demographically comparable HIV-uninfected (HIV-) control adults (all male) […]
Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.
BACKGROUND: In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered […]
To better understand the nature and rate of cognitive change across adolescence, the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) was utilized to assess psychomotor function, attention, working memory, and visual learning in individuals aged 10-18 years old. Since all CBB tasks have equivalent perceptual, motor, and linguistic demands as well as being appropriate for both children and […]
BACKGROUND: The feasibility and validity of brief computerized cognitive batteries at the population-level are unknown. METHODS: Nondemented participants (n = 1660, age 50-97 years) in the Mayo Clinic Study on Aging completed the computerized CogState battery and standard neuropsychological battery. The correlation between tests was examined and comparisons between CogState performance on the personal computer (PC) and […]
OBJECTIVE: Suffering a stroke typically has a negative impact on a person’s quality of life. There is some evidence that post-stroke cognitive impairment is associated with poor quality of life, but the relative importance of deficits in different cognitive domains has not been established. METHODS: Patients with confirmed stroke were recruited in the acute hospital. […]
Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI […]
OBJECTIVE: Over the past two decades, a number of systems have been developed for the classification of cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in older people, in order that individuals at high risk of developing neurodegenerative disease, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, may be identified well before the disease manifests clinically. This article critically examines the inclusion and exclusion […]
The cognitive neuropsychiatric approach to investigating the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other disorders.
In this paper, we examine a cognitive neuropsychiatric approach to understanding neuropsychiatric disorders by examining recent data in schizophrenia. By understanding and applying this approach, we suggest that the processes underlying the neurobiology of a range of other psychiatric disorders can be understood. Further, an assessment of the brain-behaviour relationships through this emerging discipline provides […]
Cognitive effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
A growing body of literature has examined the cognitive effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, a clear understanding of the types and magnitude of such effects are difficult to discern from such a large and varied collection of published reports. This review evaluated a total of 40 relevant placebo-controlled studies […]
BACKGROUND: Some patients with bipolar disorder (BD) demonstrate neuropsychological deficits even when stable. However, it remains unclear whether these differ qualitatively from those seen in schizophrenia (SZ). METHODS: We compared the nature and severity of cognitive deficits shown by 106 patients with SZ and 66 patients with BD to 316 healthy adults (NC). All participants […]