OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high CSF levels of neurogranin (Ng) predict longitudinal decline in memory and executive function during early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Baseline levels of CSF Ng were studied in relation to cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive performance over 8 years. Data were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, and participants with […]
Introduction Healthy women do not always consume Recommended Daily Levels of fluid intake ad libitum. We hypothesized that 1) women lose ≥ 1.0% BW during daily activities, 2) that mild body water loss impairs memory and executive function, 3) water intake to recommended daily levels will improve cognitive function. Methods We tested 12 women (26 […]
Executive Function in Adolescence: Associations with Child and Family Risk Factors and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood.
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children’s education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive […]
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Sulforaphane (SFN) extracted from broccoli sprout is an agent with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of SFN on cognitive impairment in medicated […]
BACKGROUND: Prolonged exposure to extreme environments may result in cognitive changes that may influence decision making ability and increasing risk of injury or death. OBJECTIVE: To measure the cognitive performance of a healthy man as he completed a 17 day desert expedition. METHOD: A computer based cognitive test battery, subjective cognitive rating scale, and measures […]
Several psychological constructs (e.g., subjective perception of intoxication, visuomotor speed) display acute tolerance to alcohol, that is, show improvement at declining blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) relative to equivalent rising BACs. However, methodological challenges emerge when attempting to make such comparisons across limbs of the BAC curve, which have proven a barrier to advancing research on […]
Examining the nature of impairment in visual paired associate learning in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.
OBJECTIVE: Visual spatial learning is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) although the nature of this impairment is not clear. This study investigated the nature and magnitude of errors made by adults with amnestic MCI (aMCI) when learning pattern-location paired associations in a continuous manner. METHOD: Visual associate learning was measured using the Continuous Paired […]
Anxiety symptoms, cerebral amyloid burden and memory decline in healthy older adults without dementia: 3-year prospective cohort study.
Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and […]
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type: better executive function performance with longer-term psychostimulant medication.
OBJECTIVE: Executive function deficits are evident in primary school-age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT) and are possibly improved by longer-term psychostimulant medication. In contrast, a substantial subgroup of children with ADHD-CT become symptomatic despite longer-term psychostimulant medication use. We investigated the hypothesis that better executive function performance is associated with the […]
Cognitive effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
A growing body of literature has examined the cognitive effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, a clear understanding of the types and magnitude of such effects are difficult to discern from such a large and varied collection of published reports. This review evaluated a total of 40 relevant placebo-controlled studies […]
Effect of treatment with stimulant medication on nonverbal executive function and visuomotor speed in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
This study used a novel hidden maze learning test to examine the nature and magnitude of impairment on separable aspects of executive function in 36 children with ADHD. A within-subject analysis of children with ADHD was also conducted to assess cognitive effects of open-label stimulant treatment. Compared to 31 age-matched controls, unmedicated children with ADHD […]
An examination of the construct validity and factor structure of the Groton Maze Learning Test, a new measure of spatial working memory, learning efficiency, and error monitoring.
This study examined the construct validity of the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT) in assessing processing speed, working memory, and aspects of executive function in healthy adults. Performance on GMLT outcome measures was compared to performance on tests of psychomotor speed, working memory, and learning from the CogState computerized cognitive test battery (CGS; http://www.cogstate.com/). The […]
A comparison of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery and the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Battery in assessing cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia.
This study examined the criterion and construct validity of a brief computerized cognitive test battery (CogState Schizophrenia Battery) compared to a conventional cognitive test battery recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus. The CogState and MATRICS batteries yielded comparable effect sizes in comparing patients with schizophrenia to healthy […]
Convergent validity and effect of instruction modification on the groton maze learning test: A new measure of spatial working memory and error monitoring.
This study examined the convergent validity and effect of instruction modification on the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT), a computerized hidden maze learning test. Performance on the GMLT was compared to performance on widely used pencil-and-paper and computerized measures of working memory, route selection, and planning/problem solving in a sample of healthy young adults. Performance […]